Der Australier liebt es, einem Touristen die Vorzüge und Schönheiten seines Landes nahe zu bringen. Selten, dass jemand sich beklagt, in Australien leben zu. Australien ist ein Land auf dem Australischen Kontinent sowie der Tasmanischen Insel. Das Land hat eine Gesamtfläche von km² und eine Küstenlänge. Queensland an der Ostküste ist der zweitgrößte Bundesstaat, Brisbane seine Hauptstadt und drittgrößte Stadt des Landes. Queensland genießt mehr Wintersonne.
Australien (Kontinent)Weil das Land auf dem Globus "unten" liegt, wird es auch „Down under“ genannt. Zu Australien gehören auch die Insel Tasmanien und andere kleinere. Australien (abgeleitet von lateinisch terra australis: „südliches Land“) ist das einzige Land, das gleichzeitig auch ein Kontinent ist. Seine Landfläche ist größer. Telefonvorwahl.
Australien Land Indholdsfortegnelse VideoMen At Work - Down Under (Video)
By 26 December , the Clyde Mountain fire was burning on the southern side of the Kings Highway , into the Buckenbowra and Runnyford areas.
The fire also crossed the Princes Highway in the vicinity of Round Hill and impacted the residential suburbs of Catalina , as well as beach suburbs from Sunshine Bay to Broulee.
Residents and holiday makers were forced to flee to the beaches. At nearby Conjola Park , numerous homes were lost as the embers jumped across Conjola Lake, landing in gutters and lighting up houses.
On one street there were only four houses still standing. Part of the fire was burning in inaccessible country and continued to head in a north-westerly direction towards Bombala as well as northerly to just south of Nethercote.
The fire had burnt more than 60, hectares , acres and was out of control. Kristy McBain , the Bega Valley shire council mayor, said more than properties and homes had been lost after 34 days of fire activity in the area.
On 9 February , NSW Rural Fire Service announced a torrential rain event over the preceding week had extinguished both the Morton and Currowan fires,  with the latter having burnt , hectares 1,, acres over 74 days and destroying homes.
On 30 December , the Green Valley fire burning east of Albury near Talmalmo which had started the day prior developed into an unprecedented fire event for the Snowy Valleys  as a result of extreme local conditions.
Firefighters described what they believed to be a tornado generated by the fire storm, which began flattening trees and flipped a small fire vehicle.
The tornado then impacted a crew of firefighters working to protect a property, flipping their tanker over and trapping the crew inside, who were then overrun by fire.
One firefighter was killed with multiple others injured, with one airlifted to Melbourne and two to Sydney. The Dunns Road fire was believed to have been started by a lightning strike on 28 December in a private pine plantation near Adelong.
Over , hectares , acres was burnt and the fire was out of control. The NSWRFS issued an evacuation order to residents in the Batlow and Wondalga areas.
Residents and visitors to the Kosciuszko National Park were evacuated and the national park was closed.
On 3 January , the Dunns Road fire burnt from Batlow into Kosciuszko National Park, burning much of the northern part of the park. The fire caused significant damage, severely damaging the Selwyn Snow Resort , destroying structures in the town of Cabramurra and almost completely destroying the heritage-listed precinct and birthplace of skiing in Australia of Kiandra.
Kiandra's historic former courthouse  was left with only its walls standing after a fire so hot that the glass and aluminium in the windows melted.
On 23 January , a Lockheed C Hercules large air tanker crashed near Cooma while waterbombing a blaze, resulting in the death of the three American crew members on board.
On 1 February , emergency warnings were issued for the Orroral fire and the Clear Range fire threatening Bredbo north of Cooma. On 21 November , lightning strikes ignited a series of fires in East Gippsland, initially endangering the communities of Buchan , Buchan South and Sunny Point.
The first day of two-day cricket tour match between a Victoria XI and New Zealand in Melbourne was cancelled due to extreme heat conditions.
On 30 December , there were three active fires in East Gippsland with a combined area of more than , hectares , acres , and another in the north-east of the state near Walwa heading south-east towards Cudgewa.
Approximately 4, people, including 3, tourists, remained in Mallacoota as the fire began making its closest approach to the town, cutting off roads in the process; Mallacoota had not been issued with an evacuation warning on 29 December.
Emergency Management Commissioner Andrew Crisp stated that , hectares 1,, acres had burnt including , hectares , acres near Corryong in the state's north-east and that fifty fires were burning.
On 6 January , Andrews said that bushfires had burnt through 1. On 23 January , there were still 12 fires burning in Victoria, the strongest in East Gippsland and the north-east.
The Buldah fire in East Gippsland was at watch and act level and the rest were on advice level. Most of the 44 fires sparked by dry lighting were quickly dealt with by firefighters.
Heavy rain in the Melbourne region brought little relief to bushfire-affected regions. Andrews said that the rains could bring new dangers for firefighters, including landslides.
On 30 and 31 January , very hot weather occurred in Victoria, New South Wales and South Australia that brought high fire danger with several uncontrolled bushfires still burning.
An Emergency Warning was issued for Bendoc, Bendoc Upper, and Bendoc North on 30 January. On 20 February , the huge East Gippsland bushfire that had burned for three months was declared "contained" by Bairnsdale incident controller Brett Mitchell.
Recent rainfall also contributed to the Omeo, Anglers Rest, Cobungra, Bindi, Hotham Heights, Glen Valley, Benambra, Swifts Creek, Omeo, Ensay, Tongio, the Blue Rag Range, Dargo and Tabberabbera bushfires all being contained.
The Snowy complex fire in the far east was the single major remaining fire still burning in Victoria. All significant fires in Victoria, including the Snowy Complex fire, were declared contained on 27 February On 7 September multiple out of control blazes threatened townships across south-eastern and northern Queensland, destroying eleven houses in Beechmont , seven houses in Stanthorpe , and one house at Mareeba.
A large fire impacted the Peregian Beach area on 9 September, on the Sunshine Coast , severely damaging ten houses. No homes were confirmed lost in this bushfire.
Due to deteriorating fire conditions and fires threatening homes across the state, on 9 November a State of Fire Emergency was declared across 42 local government areas across southern, central , northern and far-northern Queensland.
On 27 October a fire started in inaccessible Defence land at the Canungra Military Area. Firefighters attempted to contain the fire with extensive water bombing until weather conditions improved.
On 8 November, the fire broke through the containment line and impacted 30 houses in Lower Beechmont , resulting in the evacuation of the village.
All houses were saved, though a shed and several outbuildings were lost. On 11 November a fire started in the Ravensbourne area near Toowoomba , which burnt through over 20, hectares 49, acres of bush across several days, destroying six houses.
Queensland's chief health officer, Dr Jeannette Young , urged residents to stay indoors and to not physically exert themselves.
On 13 November a water bombing helicopter crashed while fighting the blazes threatening the small community of Pechey.
While the Bell helicopter was completely destroyed, the pilot walked away with minor injuries. On 23 November the state of fire emergency was revoked and extended fire bans were put in place in local government areas that were previously affected under this declaration.
On 6 December a house fire broke out in Bundamba and quickly spread to nearby bushland and was placed under a watch and act alert by the Queensland Fire and Emergency Services that afternoon.
The following day, after worsening conditions, the fire was upgraded to an emergency warning and began to threaten homes in the local community.
The fire destroyed a shipping container filled with fireworks, and residents within the 3-square-kilometre 1.
One home was destroyed. On 8 November a bushfire broke out in forestry to the west of the township of Jimna, causing Queensland Fire and Emergency services to issue a "watch and act" alert.
The fire caused the evacuation of the entire town. On 11 November an emergency bushfire warning was issued for Port Lincoln in the Eyre Peninsula , with an uncontrolled fire traveling towards the town.
The South Australian Country Fire Service ordered ten water bombers to the area to assist 26 ground crews at the scene. SA Power Networks disconnected power to the town.
A large fire broke out on Yorke Peninsula on 20 November and threatened the towns of Yorketown and Edithburgh. The fire was believed to have started from a sparking electrical transformer.
On 20 December fires took hold in the Adelaide Hills, and near Cudlee Creek in the Mount Lofty Ranges. Country Fire Service volunteers from around the Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges areas responded to the unfolding incident; this resulted in a number of fire trucks being overrun by the fast moving fire.
One of the trucks involved was Seaford The crews were attempting to prevent the fire from crossing Croft Rd at Cudlee Creek when a wind change pushed the fire front towards them.
The crews took shelter in their truck until the fire front passed. The crews were taken back to Lobethal were they continued to assist community members whilst on foot with asset protection as the fire front moved through.
Also on 20 December, an out-of-control bushfire took hold near Angle Vale , starting from the Northern Expressway and burning through Buchfelde and across the Gawler River.
One house was destroyed. Another emergency warning was issued on 3 January for a fire near Kersbrook. At its largest extent, the warning area overlapped with areas that a few days earlier had been in warnings for the Cudlee Creek fire.
Water bombers delivered 21 loads in just over an hour before darkness fell, and firefighters on 25 trucks plus bulk water carriers and earthmoving equipment limited the advance of the fire to 18 hectares 44 acres.
On Kangaroo Island starting in the Flinders Chase National Park , the Ravine bushfire burnt in excess of 15, hectares 37, acres and a bushfire emergency warning was issued on 3 January as the fire advanced towards Vivonne Bay and the town of Parndana was evacuated.
Fires remained burning out of control, with firefighters working to contain and control fires before potentially hot windy weather scheduled for later in the week.
Following fire damage to a water treatment plant, residents were asked to conserve water and some water was carted into island towns.
There were concerns for the future of threatened wildlife, such as glossy black cockatoos , Kangaroo Island dunnarts , and koalas. Authorities stated that any koalas taken to the mainland for treatment cannot return to the island in case they bring diseases back with them.
Two bushfires burnt in Geraldton on 13 November, damaging homes and small structures. The fire led to a service station exploding. In December fires in the region around Norseman blocked access to the Eyre Highway and the Nullarbor and caused the highways of the region to be blocked,  so as to prevent any recurrence of the death of truck drivers on the Great Eastern Highway.
Between 26 December and 1 January , as a result of a lightning strike,  a fire tore through 40, hectares 99, acres of land in Stirling Range National Park in the southwest of the state, burning more than half of the park.
The last fire of Western Australian —20 bushfire season started in Lake Clifton, within the Shire of Waroona, on 2 May and was extinguished on 3 May.
In late October , four bushfires were burning near Scamander , Elderslie, and Lachlan. Emergency warnings were issued at Lulworth, Bothwell, and Lachlan.
A large fire near Swansea also burnt over 4, hectares 9, acres. Lighting strikes subsequently started multiple fires in Southwest Tasmania.
Two fires continued to burn in January A fire in the Fingal Valley, in north-eastern Tasmania, started on 29 December, and a fire at Pelham, north of Hobart, started on 30 December.
In the Australian Capital Territory ACT , the national capital Canberra was blanketed by thick bushfire smoke on New Year's Day from bushfires burning nearby in New South Wales.
That day the air quality in the capital was the worst of any city in the world, at around 23 times the threshold to be considered hazardous.
Conditions continued the next day, and Australia Post stopped postal deliveries in the ACT to keep workers safe from smoke. An elderly woman had been travelling from Brisbane to Canberra by plane, when she exited the plane onto the smoke-flooded tarmac, she suffered respiratory distress and then died.
From at least 6 January a bushfire near Hospital Hill in the Namadgi National Park had started; it was extinguished on 9 January.
On 22 January a bushfire started in Pialligo Redwood Forest; it reached emergency level, threatening Beard and Oaks Estate. The next day a second bushfire started, the Kallaroo Fire, which later during the day merged with the Redwood Forest fire forming the Beard Fire; the fire jumped the Molonglo River and threatened the suburbs of Beard , Harman and Oaks Estate as it burnt hectares 1, acres.
Canberra Airport was closed for a day. On 27 January a bushfire started in the Orroral Valley in the Namadgi National Park.
At pm, an Army MRH Taipan helicopter conducting reconnaissance for landing sites for remote area firefighting teams attempted to land for a break when their landing light ignited a fire in dry grass.
Chief Minister Andrew Barr described the fire as the biggest threat to Canberra since the Canberra bushfires.
The Northern Territory went through a relatively average annual bushfire season with respect to area of land burnt, in comparison to the scale of bushfires witnessed in other areas of Australia.
Despite this, approximately 6. Five homes were lost to bushfires in the Territory. While the full extent of the current bushfires is yet to be measured, there have been a number of large scale bushfires recorded in Australian history.
The widespread fires in Victoria, NSW, South Australia and the ACT similarly gained international headlines when the fires entered the Sydney suburbs,  as did the eastern seaboard fires.
NSW was again badly affected, and three people killed, however the fires were mainly in sparsely populated inland areas.
In December , the air quality index AQI around Rozelle , a west suburb of Sydney, hit 2, or more than 12 times the hazardous level of On New Year's Day in New Zealand, a blanket of smoke from the Australian fires covered the whole South Island , giving the sky an orange-yellow haze.
People in Dunedin reported smelling smoke in the air. The estimate was based on a World Wide Fund for Nature WWF report on impacts of land clearing on Australian wildlife in New South Wales that provided estimates of mammal, bird and reptile population density in the region.
Dickman's calculation had been based on highly conservative estimates and the actual mortality would therefore be higher.
The figure provided by Dickman included mammals excluding bats , birds, and reptiles; and did not include frogs, insects, or other invertebrates.
A study estimated that at least 3 billion terrestrial vertebrates alone were displaced or killed by the fires, with reptiles which tend to have higher population densities in affected areas compared to other vertebrates comprising over two-thirds of the affected, with birds, mammals, and amphibians comprising the other third.
Ecologists feared some endangered species were driven to extinction by the fires. Animals that survived a bushfire could still find suitable habitats in the immediate vicinity, which was not the case when an entire distribution is decimated in an intense event.
Besides immediate mortality from the fires, there were on-going mortalities after the fires from starvation, lack of shelter, and attacks from predators such as foxes and feral cats that are attracted to fire-affected areas to hunt.
On Kangaroo Island, Australia's third-largest island and known as Australia's "Galapagos Island",  a third of the island was burnt.
Large parts of the island are designated as protected areas and host animals such as sea lions, penguins, kangaroos, koalas, pygmy possums , southern brown bandicoots , Ligurian bees, Kangaroo Island dunnarts and various birds including glossy black cockatoos.
Before the fires, there were fewer than Kangaroo Island dunnarts and about Kangaroo Island glossy black cockatoos. The loss of an estimated 8, koalas Phascolarctos cinereus caused concerns.
They are considered vulnerable to extinction, though not functionally extinct. Fire damaged year-old rock art at Anaiwan in northern New South Wales , with the intense and rapid temperature change of the fires cracking the granite rock.
This caused panels of art to fracture and fall off the huge boulders that contain the galleries of art. At the Budj Bim heritage areas in Victoria the Gunditjmara people reported that when they inspected the site after fires moved across it, they found ancient channels and ponds that were newly visible after the fires burned much of the vegetation off the landscape.
After fire burnt out a creek on a property at Cobargo, NSW, on New Year's Eve, a boomerang carved by stone artefact was found. The two primary firefighting agencies for New South Wales, Fire and Rescue NSW and the NSW Rural Fire Service , formed the bulk of the primary response to the fires, mobilising thousands of firefighters and several hundred firefighting vehicles.
They were heavily supported by the NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service and the Forestry Corporation of NSW, who hold jurisdiction over national parks and forests across the state.
Additional local firefighting resources were also used from agencies such as Air Services Australia and Sydney Trains. Numerous interstate agencies deployed firefighting resources into New South Wales, including several hundred firefighters from the Victorian Country Fire Authority ,  along with crews from the Melbourne Metropolitan Fire Brigade ,  the South Australian Country Fire Service ,  the South Australian Metropolitan Fire Service ,  the South Australian Department of Environment and Water,  and the Queensland Fire and Emergency Service.
Despite the substantial loss of property and loss of life, firefighters have so far [ when? Multiple other New South Wales emergency services assisted in the response, including NSW Ambulance that provided ongoing pre-hospital care to victims of the fires including firefighters, NSW Police that worked to ensure public safety was maintained through road closures and evacuations and the NSW State Emergency Service that assisted with logistical support.
Fire retardant was dropped from air tankers, and an irrigation system was installed on the ground by specialist firefighters, who were lowered into the area by winches from helicopters.
On 24 December , the Morrison Government announced that volunteer firefighters employed in the Commonwealth public service would be offered at least 20 working days paid leave.
On 5 December , the Australian Defence Force ADF commenced Operation Bushfire Assist to support state fire services in logistics, planning, capability, and operational support.
Activities the ADF has undertaken as part of the Operation have included Air Force aircraft transporting firefighters and their equipment interstate, Army and Navy helicopters transporting firefighters, conducting night fire mapping, impact assessments and search and rescue flights, use of various defence facilities as coordination and information centres and for catering and accommodation for firefighters, liaison between state and federal government services, reloading and refuelling for waterbombing aircraft, deployment of personnel to assess fire damage and severity, and provision of humanitarian supplies.
On 4 January , following a meeting of the National Security Committee , the Morrison Government announced a compulsory call-out of Army Reserve brigades to deploy up to 3, reserve personnel full-time to assist with in the Operation.
Additionally, Defence announced that it would deploy HMAS Adelaide to support other Navy ships in evacuations and relief, as well additional Chinook helicopters and military transport aircraft to RAAF Base East Sale.
In , Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain and initially settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January , a date which became Australia's national day.
The population grew steadily in subsequent decades, and by the time of an s gold rush , most of the continent had been explored by European settlers and an additional five self-governing crown colonies established.
On 1 January , the six colonies federated , forming the Commonwealth of Australia. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy , comprising six states and ten territories.
Australia is the oldest,  flattest,  and driest inhabited continent,   with the least fertile soils. Australia generates its income from various sources, including mining-related exports , telecommunications , banking , manufacturing , and international education.
Australia is a developed country , with the world's thirteenth-largest economy and tenth-highest per capita income. Australia is a member of the United Nations , G20 , Commonwealth of Nations , ANZUS , Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development OECD , World Trade Organization , Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation , Pacific Islands Forum , and the ASEAN Plus Six.
Until the early 19th century, Australia was best known as " New Holland ", a name first applied by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in as Nieuw-Holland and subsequently anglicised.
Terra Australis still saw occasional usage, such as in scientific texts. Gerardus Mercator — used the phrase climata australia on his double cordiform map of the world of , as did Gemma Frisius — , who was Mercator's teacher and collaborator, on his own cordiform wall map in Australia appears in a book on astronomy by Cyriaco Jacob zum Barth published in Frankfurt am Main in The first time that Australia appears to have been officially used was in April , when Governor Lachlan Macquarie acknowledged the receipt of Flinders' charts of Australia from Lord Bathurst.
Colloquial names for Australia include " Oz " and "the Land Down Under" usually shortened to just " Down Under ". Other epithets include "the Great Southern Land", " the Lucky Country ", "the Sunburnt Country", and "the Wide Brown Land".
The latter two both derive from Dorothea Mackellar 's poem " My Country ". Human habitation of the Australian continent is known to have begun at least 65, years ago,   with the migration of people by land bridges and short sea-crossings from what is now Southeast Asia.
At the time of first European contact, most Indigenous Australians were hunter-gatherers with complex economies and societies.
The first recorded European sighting of the Australian mainland, and the first recorded European landfall on the Australian continent, are attributed to the Dutch.
With the loss of its American colonies in , the British Government sent a fleet of ships, the " First Fleet ", under the command of Captain Arthur Phillip , to establish a new penal colony in New South Wales.
A camp was set up and the Union flag raised at Sydney Cove , Port Jackson , on 26 January ,   a date which later became Australia's national day, Australia Day.
Most early convicts were transported for petty crimes and assigned as labourers or servants upon arrival.
While the majority settled into colonial society once emancipated , convict rebellions and uprisings were also staged, but invariably suppressed under martial law.
The Rum Rebellion , the only successful armed takeover of government in Australia, instigated a two-year period of military rule.
The indigenous population declined for years following settlement, mainly due to infectious disease. The expansion of British control over other areas of the continent began in the early 19th century, initially confined to coastal regions.
A settlement was established in Van Diemen's Land present-day Tasmania in , and it became a separate colony in Explorers remained ambitious to discover new lands for agriculture or answers to scientific enquiries.
A series of gold rushes beginning in the early s led to an influx of new migrants from China , North America and mainland Europe,  and also spurred outbreaks of bushranging and civil unrest.
The latter peaked in when Ballarat miners launched the Eureka Rebellion against gold license fees. On 1 January , federation of the colonies was achieved after a decade of planning, consultation and voting.
Melbourne was the temporary seat of government from to while Canberra was being constructed. The two were unified as the Territory of Papua and New Guinea in and gained independence from Australia in In , Australia joined Britain in fighting World War I, with support from both the outgoing Commonwealth Liberal Party and the incoming Australian Labor Party.
Britain's Statute of Westminster formally ended most of the constitutional links between Australia and the UK. Australia adopted it in ,  but it was backdated to to confirm the validity of legislation passed by the Australian Parliament during World War II.
After World War II, Australia encouraged immigration from mainland Europe. Since the s and following the abolition of the White Australia policy , immigration from Asia and elsewhere was also promoted.
There has been an increasing focus in foreign policy on ties with other Pacific Rim nations while maintaining close ties with Australia's traditional allies and trading partners.
Surrounded by the Indian and Pacific oceans, [N 7] Australia is separated from Asia by the Arafura and Timor seas, with the Coral Sea lying off the Queensland coast, and the Tasman Sea lying between Australia and New Zealand.
The world's smallest continent  and sixth largest country by total area ,  Australia—owing to its size and isolation—is often dubbed the "island continent"  and is sometimes considered the world's largest island.
This exclusive economic zone does not include the Australian Antarctic Territory. Australia's size gives it a wide variety of landscapes, with tropical rainforests in the north-east, mountain ranges in the south-east, south-west and east, and desert in the centre.
Mount Augustus , claimed to be the world's largest monolith,  is located in Western Australia. Eastern Australia is marked by the Great Dividing Range , which runs parallel to the coast of Queensland , New South Wales and much of Victoria.
The landscapes of the Top End and the Gulf Country —with their tropical climate—include forest, woodland , wetland, grassland , rainforest and desert.
The Victoria Plains tropical savanna lies south of the Kimberly and Arnhem Land savannas, forming a transition between the coastal savannas and the interior deserts.
Prominent features of the centre and south include Uluru also known as Ayers Rock , the famous sandstone monolith, and the inland Simpson , Tirari and Sturt Stony , Gibson , Great Sandy, Tanami , and Great Victoria deserts, with the famous Nullarbor Plain on the southern coast.
Lying on the Indo-Australian Plate , the mainland of Australia is the lowest and most primordial landmass on Earth with a relatively stable geological history.
The Pilbara Craton is one of only two pristine Archaean 3. Having been part of all major supercontinents , the Australian continent began to form after the breakup of Gondwana in the Permian , with the separation of the continental landmass from the African continent and Indian subcontinent.
It separated from Antarctica over a prolonged period beginning in the Permian and continuing through to the Cretaceous.
Then between about 8, and 6, BC, the lowlands in the north were flooded by the sea, separating New Guinea, the Aru Islands , and the mainland of Australia.
The Australian mainland and Tasmania are situated in the middle of the tectonic plate and have no active volcanoes,  but due to passing over the East Australia hotspot , recent volcanism has occurred during the Holocene , in the Newer Volcanics Province of western Victoria and southeastern South Australia.
Volcanism also occurs in the island of New Guinea considered geologically as part of the Australian continent , and in the Australian external territory of Heard Island and McDonald Islands.
Much of the northern part of the country has a tropical, predominantly summer-rainfall monsoon. The interior is arid to semi-arid. Associated changes in rainfall patterns and climate extremes exacerbate existing issues such as drought and bushfires.
Water restrictions are frequently in place in many regions and cities of Australia in response to chronic shortages due to urban population increases and localised drought.
Although most of Australia is semi-arid or desert, the continent includes a diverse range of habitats from alpine heaths to tropical rainforests.
Feral cats may have been introduced in the 17th century by Dutch shipwrecks, and later in the 18th century by European settlers. They are now considered a major factor in the decline and extinction of many vulnerable and endangered native species.
Australian forests are mostly made up of evergreen species, particularly eucalyptus trees in the less arid regions; wattles replace them as the dominant species in drier regions and deserts.
Many of Australia's ecoregions, and the species within those regions, are threatened by human activities and introduced animal, chromistan , fungal and plant species.
Australia is a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy. It is also one of the world's oldest federations , in which power is divided between the federal and state and territorial governments.
The Australian system of government combines elements derived from the political systems of the United Kingdom a fused executive , constitutional monarchy and strong party discipline and the United States federalism , a written constitution and strong bicameralism with an elected upper house , along with distinctive indigenous features.
The federal government is separated into three branches:. Elizabeth II reigns as Queen of Australia and is represented in Australia by the governor-general at the federal level and by the governors at the state level, who by convention act on the advice of her ministers.
The governor-general does have extraordinary reserve powers which may be exercised outside the prime minister's request in rare and limited circumstances, the most notable exercise of which was the dismissal of the Whitlam Government in the constitutional crisis of In the Senate the upper house , there are 76 senators: twelve each from the states and two each from the mainland territories the Australian Capital Territory and the Northern Territory.
Australia's electoral system uses preferential voting for all lower house elections with the exception of Tasmania and the ACT which, along with the Senate and most state upper houses, combine it with proportional representation in a system known as the single transferable vote.
Voting is compulsory for all enrolled citizens 18 years and over in every jurisdiction,  as is enrolment with the exception of South Australia.
In cases where no party has majority support, the Governor-General has the constitutional power to appoint the Prime Minister and, if necessary, dismiss one that has lost the confidence of Parliament.
There are two major political groups that usually form government, federally and in the states: the Australian Labor Party and the Coalition which is a formal grouping of the Liberal Party and its minor partner, the National Party.
The Australian Greens are often considered the "third force" in politics, being the third largest party by both vote and membership.
The most recent federal election was held on 18 May and resulted in the Coalition, led by Prime Minister Scott Morrison , retaining government.
Australia has six states— New South Wales NSW , Queensland QLD , South Australia SA , Tasmania TAS , Victoria VIC and Western Australia WA —and two major mainland territories—the Australian Capital Territory ACT and the Northern Territory NT.
In most respects, these two territories function as states, except that the Commonwealth Parliament has the power to modify or repeal any legislation passed by the territory parliaments.
Under the constitution, the states essentially have plenary legislative power to legislate on any subject, whereas the Commonwealth federal Parliament may legislate only within the subject areas enumerated under section For example, state parliaments have the power to legislate with respect to education, criminal law and state police, health, transport, and local government, but the Commonwealth Parliament does not have any specific power to legislate in these areas.
Each state and major mainland territory has its own parliament — unicameral in the Northern Territory, the ACT and Queensland, and bicameral in the other states.
The states are sovereign entities, although subject to certain powers of the Commonwealth as defined by the Constitution.
The lower houses are known as the Legislative Assembly the House of Assembly in South Australia and Tasmania ; the upper houses are known as the Legislative Council.
The head of the government in each state is the Premier and in each territory the Chief Minister. The Queen is represented in each state by a governor ; and in the Northern Territory, the administrator.
The Commonwealth Parliament also directly administers the external territories of Ashmore and Cartier Islands , Christmas Island , the Cocos Keeling Islands , the Coral Sea Islands , Heard Island and McDonald Islands , and the claimed region of Australian Antarctic Territory , as well as the internal Jervis Bay Territory , a naval base and sea port for the national capital in land that was formerly part of New South Wales.
Over recent decades, Australia's foreign relations have been driven by a close association with the United States through the ANZUS pact, and by a desire to develop relationships with Asia and the Pacific, particularly through ASEAN , the Pacific Islands Forum and the Pacific Community , of which Australia is a founding member.
In Australia secured an inaugural seat at the East Asia Summit following its accession to the Treaty of Amity and Cooperation in Southeast Asia , and in attended the Sixth East Asia Summit in Indonesia.
Australia is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations , in which the Commonwealth Heads of Government meetings provide the main forum for co-operation.
Australia maintains a deeply integrated relationship with neighbouring New Zealand, with free mobility of citizens between the two countries under the Trans-Tasman Travel Arrangement and free trade under the Australia—New Zealand Closer Economic Relations Trade Agreement.
Along with New Zealand, the United Kingdom, Malaysia and Singapore, Australia is party to the Five Power Defence Arrangements , a regional defence agreement.
A founding member country of the United Nations, Australia is strongly committed to multilateralism  and maintains an international aid program under which some 60 countries receive assistance.
The titular role of Commander-in-Chief is vested in the Governor-General , who appoints a Chief of the Defence Force from one of the armed services on the advice of the government.
A wealthy country, Australia has a market economy , a high GDP per capita, and a relatively low rate of poverty.
In terms of average wealth, Australia ranked second in the world after Switzerland from until The Australian dollar is the currency for the nation, including Christmas Island, Cocos Keeling Islands, and Norfolk Island, as well as the independent Pacific Island states of Kiribati , Nauru , and Tuvalu.
With the merger of the Australian Stock Exchange and the Sydney Futures Exchange, the Australian Securities Exchange became the ninth largest in the world.
An emphasis on exporting commodities rather than manufactured goods has underpinned a significant increase in Australia's terms of trade since the start of the 21st century, due to rising commodity prices.
Australia was the only advanced economy not to experience a recession due to the global financial downturn in — The Hawke Government floated the Australian dollar in and partially deregulated the financial system.
In , Newstart unemployment allowance recipients were registered, a total that increased to , in March Since [ when?
Australia's largest export markets are Japan , China , the United States , South Korea , and New Zealand. Access to biocapacity in Australia is much higher than world average.
In , Australia had This means they use half as much biocapacity as Australia contains. As a result, Australia is running a biocapacity reserve.
In ACOSS released a new report revealing that poverty is growing in Australia, with an estimated 3. It also estimated that there are , Australia has an average population density of 3.
The population is heavily concentrated on the east coast, and in particular in the south-eastern region between South East Queensland to the north-east and Adelaide to the south-west.
In common with many other developed countries, Australia is experiencing a demographic shift towards an older population, with more retirees and fewer people of working age.
In the average age of the Australian population was Between and the Second World War , the vast majority of settlers and immigrants came from the British Isles principally England , Ireland and Scotland , although there was significant immigration from China and Germany during the 19th century.
In the decades immediately following the Second World War, Australia received a large wave of immigration from across Europe , with many more immigrants arriving from Southern and Eastern Europe than in previous decades.
Since the end of the White Australia policy in , Australia has pursued an official policy of multiculturalism ,  and there has been a large and continuing wave of immigration from across the world, with Asia being the largest source of immigrants in the 21st century.
In the Australian census, the most commonly nominated ancestries were: [N 9]  . At the census, , people 2. Although Australia has no official language, English is the de facto national language.
According to the census, English is the only language spoken in the home for The next most common languages spoken at home are Mandarin 2.
Over Indigenous Australian languages are thought to have existed at the time of first European contact,  of which fewer than twenty are still in daily use by all age groups.
Australia has no state religion ; Section of the Australian Constitution prohibits the federal government from making any law to establish any religion, impose any religious observance, or prohibit the free exercise of any religion.
The remaining 9. Before European settlement, the animist beliefs of Australia's indigenous people had been practised for many thousands of years.
Mainland Aboriginal Australians' spirituality is known as the Dreaming and it places a heavy emphasis on belonging to the land.
The collection of stories that it contains shaped Aboriginal law and customs. Aboriginal art , story and dance continue to draw on these spiritual traditions.
The spirituality and customs of Torres Strait Islanders , who inhabit the islands between Australia and New Guinea, reflected their Melanesian origins and dependence on the sea.
The Australian census counted more than respondents as followers of a traditional Aboriginal religion. Since the arrival of the First Fleet of British ships in , Christianity has become the major religion practised in Australia.
Christian churches have played an integral role in the development of education, health and welfare services in Australia.
For much of Australian history, the Church of England now known as the Anglican Church of Australia was the largest religious denomination, with a large Roman Catholic minority.
However, multicultural immigration has contributed to a steep decline in its relative position since the Second World War. Similarly, Islam , Buddhism , Hinduism , Sikhism and Judaism have all grown in Australia over the past half-century.
Australia has one of the lowest levels of religious adherence in the world. Australia's life expectancy is the fourth highest in the world for males and the third highest for females.
Ranked second in preventable causes is hypertension at 7. Total expenditure on health including private sector spending is around 9.
School attendance, or registration for home schooling,  is compulsory throughout Australia. Catholic education accounts for the largest non-government sector.
Australia has 37 government-funded universities and three private universities, as well as a number of other specialist institutions that provide approved courses at the higher education level.
Australia has the highest ratio of international students per head of population in the world by a large margin, with , international students enrolled in the nation's universities and vocational institutions in International education therefore represents one of the country's largest exports and has a pronounced influence on the country's demographics, with a significant proportion of international students remaining in Australia after graduation on various skill and employment visas.
Since , the primary influence behind Australian culture has been Anglo-Celtic Western culture , with some Indigenous influences.
Other cultural influences come from neighbouring Asian countries, and through large-scale immigration from non-English-speaking nations.
Australia has over , Aboriginal rock art sites,  and traditional designs, patterns and stories infuse contemporary Indigenous Australian art , "the last great art movement of the 20th century" according to critic Robert Hughes ;  its exponents include Emily Kame Kngwarreye.
Australian literature grew slowly in the decades following European settlement though Indigenous oral traditions , many of which have since been recorded in writing, are much older.
Following in his footsteps, Henry Lawson and Banjo Paterson captured the experience of the bush using a distinctive Australian vocabulary.
Many of Australia's performing arts companies receive funding through the federal government's Australia Council. Each state has a publicly funded theatre company.
The Story of the Kelly Gang , the world's first feature-length narrative film, spurred a boom in Australian cinema during the silent film era. Australia has two public broadcasters the Australian Broadcasting Corporation and the multicultural Special Broadcasting Service , three commercial television networks, several pay-TV services,  and numerous public, non-profit television and radio stations.
The major exception is the Murray River , a stream that rises in the Mount Kosciuszko area in the Eastern Uplands and is fed by melting snows.
As a result, it acquires a volume sufficient to survive the passage across the arid and semiarid plains that bear its name and to reach the Southern Ocean southeast of Adelaide.
In Australia, the southern portions of the Pacific and Indian oceans surrounding Antarctica are called the Southern Ocean; that body of water is also known as the Antarctic Ocean.
All other rivers in Australia are seasonal or intermittent in their flow, and those of the arid interior are episodic. Many areas—notably the Nullarbor Plain , which is underlain by limestone, and the sand ridge deserts —are without surface drainage , but there are underground streams.
Australia Article Media Additional Info. Article Contents. Load Previous Page. Australien er et konstitutionelt monarki , og den britiske dronning Elizabeth II er dronnning af Australien og statsoverhoved , en rolle, som er adskilt fra hendes rolle som dronning af Storbritannien.
Australien har tvungen valgdeltagelse. I perioden til styrede en koalition mellem de liberale og det nationale parti Australien med premierminister John Howard i spidsen.
Koalitionen afgav ved valget i magten til Labor med Kevin Rudd i spidsen og igen juni september Landet er omgivet af det Indiske Ocean , Sydhavet og Stillehavet.
Australien er adskilt fra Asien af Arafurahavet og Timorhavet. Hver delstat og fastlandsterritorium har sit eget parlament. Underhusene er kendt som Legislative Assembly House of Assembly i South Australia og Tasmanien , mens overhusene kaldes Legislative Council.
Dingoen blev introduceret af austronesiske folkeslag, som handlede med aboriginere ca. Landets bruttonationalprodukt var mia. US dollar i , hvilket svarer til Flertallet af de ca.
Australiens befolkning er firdoblet siden afslutningen af 1. Efter at White Australia policy blev afskaffet i , er der taget mange regeringsinitiativer for at fremme et mulitikulturelt samfund.
Australiens befolkning er vokset ca. Landets urbefolkning aboriginerne bestod i af Raceulighed og menneskerettigheder er fortsatte politiske emner i Australien.
Et stort antal australiere, Engelsk er de facto-sproget, men ikke et officielt sprog,  og tales med dialekten australsk engelsk. Australien har ingen statsreligion.
PISA Programme for International Student Assessment , koordineret af OECD , har rangeret Australiens uddannelsessystem som det 8.
Hulemalerier, som er mindst Der er i dag kun cirka Siden midten af det Musikken i Australien er, med undtagelse for urbefolkningen, klassificeret som vestlig.
Australiens nationalsang er " Advance Australia Fair ". Store sportsgrene i Australien er hestesport , surfing , australsk fodbold og rugby , hvor det australske landshold er et af verdens bedste.
Australien er en af fem nationer, som har deltaget ved alle sommer-OL i moderne tid. Ikke at forveksle med Australien kontinent.
Commonwealth of Australia. Uddybende artikel: Australiens historie. Uddybende artikel: Australiens politik.
Importen av skogsprodukter är betydligt större än exporten. Lite mindre betydelse har lastfordon, datorer, guld och avancerad verkstadsutrustning.
De viktigaste importmarknaderna är Kina, USA, Japan, Singapore och Thailand DFTA. Utgifterna i tjänstehandeln är framför allt kostnader för utländska resor och godstransporter samt köp av affärstjänster.
Detta eftersom jordbruk eller boskapsskötsel inte förekom. Aboriginerna behövde vanligtvis inga kläder, däremot kunde de som levde i södra delarna av kontinenten svepa om sig känguruskinn när det blev kallt.
Redskapen som aboriginerna använde var spjut som tillverkades av trä, yxor, pilspetsar av sten, samt andra redskap tillverkade av växtfibrer.
Aboriginerna hade omfattande kunskaper om naturen och hur man anpassar sig till den trots att deras kultur var materiellt enkel.
Redskapen var lätta för att man skulle bära dem med sig. Australien har ingen statsreligion. Den snabbast växande och näst största religionen i Australien är islam , följt av buddhism och hinduism.
Även deltog Australien i ESC. Bland Australiens mest kända idrottspersoner finns simmarna Dawn Fraser och Ian Thorpe , löparen Cathy Freeman , tennisspelarna Roy Emerson , Rod Laver , Ken Rosewall , Samantha Stosur och Lleyton Hewitt samt cricketspelaren Donald Bradman , vars slagsnitt har ansetts vara den statistiskt främsta bedriften inom samtliga större sporter.
Andra nationellt populära sporter inkluderar australisk fotboll , hästkapplöpning, fotboll, segling och motorsport.
Australien har deltagit i alla olympiska sommarspel under modern tid och samtliga Samväldesspel. Australien var värd för Olympiska sommarspelen i Melbourne och Olympiska sommarspelen i Sydney.
De mest vanliga sporten är just nu volleyboll. Den här artikeln handlar om nationen Australien. För kontinenten Australien, se Australien kontinent.Different types of land rights laws exist in Australia, allowing for the renewed ownership of land to Indigenous Australians under various conditions. Land rights schemes are in place in the Northern Territory, Queensland (including the Torres Strait Islands), New South Wales, South Australia, Victoria and Tasmania. Western Australia (WA) is divided into regions according to a number of systems.. The most common system is the WA Government division of the state into regions for economic development purposes, which comprises nine defined regions; however, there are a number of other systems, including those made for purposes of land management (such as agriculture and conservation), information gathering. Australia is a land of vast plains. Only 6 percent of the island continent is above 2, feet ( metres) in elevation. Its highest peak, Mount Kosciuszko, rises to only 7, feet (2, metres). Eleanor Dark's Timeless Land trilogy, which spans the colonisation from to The s television drama, The Timeless Land, was based on this trilogy. D. Manning Richards. Destiny in Sydney: An epic novel of convicts, Aborigines, and Chinese embroiled in the birth of Sydney, Australia. First book in Sydney series. The history of Australia is the story of the land and peoples of the continent of Australia. Aboriginal Australians first arrived on the Australian mainland by sea from Maritime Southeast Asia between 40, and 70, years ago, and penetrated to all parts of the continent, from the rainforests in the north, the deserts of the centre, and the sub-Antarctic islands of Tasmania and Bass Strait.